Colonoscope is a procedure that involves inserting a scope through the rectum to examine the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon, cecum, and a small section of the small intestine (terminal ileum) that connects to the colon. It can clearly identify intestinal lesions, and in some cases, treat them, such as removing benign lesions (polyps) under the scope, stopping intestinal bleeding, and removing foreign objects from the colon.
There are two types of colonoscopes: one is a metallic hard tube and the other is a fiberoptic colonoscope. Because the metallic hard tube causes more pain, it has been abandoned, and most hospitals now use the fiberoptic colonoscope. In the 1980s, an American company pioneered electronic endoscopy, ushering in the electronic age of endoscopic technology, which is now widely used in clinical practice.
A fiberoptic colonoscope is an optical endo camera consisting of an objective lens system and an optical transmission/transfer imaging system that includes or does not include an observation eyepiece system to form the observation path. It may contain accessories, which are attachments or independent products used in conjunction with endoscopes. An electronic colonoscope is an electronic endoscope consisting of an objective lens system, an array of photoelectric sensors, and a conversion integrated module. The object to be observed is imaged through a small objective lens system onto the photoelectric sensor array, and the received image signal is sent to the image processing system, which outputs the processed image on a monitor.
The cleaning and disinfection of colonoscopes are usually accomplished by a sink-based manual cleaning and disinfection method which must undergo 3 steps: cleaning, disinfecting, and sterile preservation. Thorough cleaning is essential; it not only removes large debris, but also reduces pathogenic bacteria to a level that is difficult to cause infections and improves the disinfection effect of the disinfectant. Colonoscope accessories (such as biopsy forceps and metal products) can be sterilized by high-pressure steam. The basic principles are as follows:
(1) Colonoscope attachments that penetrate mucosa, such as biopsy forceps, guide wires, mesh baskets, and high-frequency electric knives, must be disinfected.
(2) Colonoscopes and attachments should be cleaned, disinfected, or sterilized immediately after use, and the disinfection or sterilization time should be controlled by a timer.
(3) The colonoscopes cleaning should use running water.
(4) The record of cleaning and disinfection of colonoscopes should be complete, including the name, address, phone number of the patient, colonoscope identification number, cleaning time, disinfection time, the name of the operator, and the name of the disinfection personnel.